Visualizing the present scenario of changing climate, sky rocketing food prices and energy crisis, major emphasis is being given on conservation agriculture in improving efficiency, equity and environment that can be realized with application of resource conservation technologies such as utilization of on-farm resources, zero-till, laser leveling, raised bed techniques, direct seeding of rice, managing crop residues, etc. Among Resource Conservation Technologies (RCTs) z direct seeding of rice, is gaining momentum particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) where rice-wheat is a predominant cropping system. Generally manual transplanting of Rice after 2–3 paddling operations with 21 – 35 days old rice seedling is common in the District. This age-old method of planting is used to reduce water percolation and also help in weed control. However, this system is labor intensive, requires huge tractor usage which often delays transplanting of paddy up to second week of August, it ultimately lead is poor tillering, poor grain formation and low yields of rice. Delayed harvesting of rice also delays sowing of wheat that ultimately reduce wheat grain yield. On the negative side, puddling degrades the soil physical properties resulting into poor soil physical conditions for establishment of the next upland crop such as wheat. There has been a lot of research in the region to look at the possibility of establishing rice without puddling. The major hurdle has been paucity of knowledge in the area of good weed management. A total of 1382 mm to 1838 mm water is required for the RW system at different locations in the IGP, accounting to more than 80% for the rice growing season. Thus to save on water, saving must be effected during the rice growing season, the major water user in the RW system. The winter season is short in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Long-term analysis of the rainfall data clearly indicates that there are three distinct periods of moisture availability. The early moist period (evaporation exceeds rainfall) extends over 12-18 days followed by 93-139 days of a humid moist period wherein precipitation exceeds potential evapo-transpiration. This is followed by a moist period of 17-22 days where once again rainfall is less than evapo-transpiration. If the rice crop can be established early in the first moist period, before the humid period, the rice crop can benefit from the monsoon rain and grow without the need for irrigation. RW system productivity was nearly 12-13 tons per ha when rice was transplanted before 28th June. This was reduced by more than 40% when fields were planted after 15th August (to 6-7 tons/ha). The key issue is if higher system productivity is desired, the rice crop must be planted early with the onset of monsoons by raising rice nurseries with ground water and vacating the main fields early in the season for the succeeding wheat or other crop.
To overcome these problems in rice-wheat cropping system, direct seeded rice (DSR) was demonstrated at farmers’ fields of Kushinagar of U.P along with KVK Farm, Sargatia (Kushinagar) for adoption and promotion of this technology among the farmers. Apart from this technology, improved varieties coupled with integrated plant nutrient management and integrated pest management technologies were also included under Resource Conservation Technology.
Kushinagar district is situated on 81 to 24 East longitude and 26 to 45 North latitude. The temperature in the district ranges between 5C and 43.4C and annual rainfall is 907 mm. It is comprised of 4 Tehsils and 14 Blocks. The population of the district is 2.89 million with a density of 996 per km² and literacy rate of 46.95. Total reported area is 291573 ha, out of which net sown area is 220838 ha and irrigated area is 160898 ha. Soils are sandy loam to loam and clay loam. Typical Bhatt soils are also found which is clay type and have high water holding capacity. The cropping intensity is 151.36%. The major crop grown in Kharif is rice (119909 ha) with the productivity of 20.09 q/ha. Major crop grown in Rabi is wheat (117988 ha) with the productivity of 27.94 q/ha. Fertilizer consumption is 160.98 kg/ha with an application of NPK @ 117.27, 33.55 and 10.17 kg/ha, respectively. Rice-Wheat is one of the major cropping systems that occupied approximately 237897 hectares area in district.
|Year||Normal Rainfall (mm)||Received Rainfall (mm)|
Source : http://www.imd.gov.in/section/hydro/distrainfall/webrain/up/kushinagar.txt http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/?q=content/district-rainfall-data-imds-ganesha-moment
DSR through Zero tillage Machine along with improved production technologies in paddy were demonstrated under Rice-wheat cropping system at the farmer field of Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh. Under rice-wheat cropping system farmers grown long duration traditional paddy varieties which give them not only low yield but also required more number of irrigation and agronomic practices. During Kharif 2009, frontline demonstrations of improved Paddy varieties through conventional method and direct seeded rice (DSR) were given in 173 farmer’s field in an area of 39.83 hectare. Rice sowing was done by Zero-till Seed cum ferti drill at a seed rate of 40 kg/ha in case of improved varieties and 12.5 kg/ha for hybrid. Weeds are the major threat in direct seeded rice therefore, pendimethaline @ 1 kg a .i. /ha was applied next day after sowing using 500 liter aqueous solution, it was followed by application of 2,4-D @ 0.5 kg a.i./ha in 500 liter of water to control broad leaf weeds and sedges at 25 DAS. One manual weeding was also done at 35 DAS to eliminate some of the escaped wheat. Other cultural operation were similar to transplanted rice except application of butachlore @ 1.25 kg a.i./ha at 2 days after transplanting.
|S.N.||Name of the Village||Name of the Block|
|1||Semra Hardo Patti||Tamkuhi|
Considering the existing situations in the region, large acreage demonstrations of paddy were conducted at farmer’s field. Major emphasis was given to include short duration, high yielding paddy varieties along with Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) with imposition of IPM and IPNM technologies mainly aimed at to save irrigation water optimization of input cost and on through resource conservation. The performance of result of frontline demonstration of Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) in presented in Table 3. Varieties included in demonstration are Rajshree, Rajendra mahsoori, Pusa -44, PB-1 at 104 and hybrid PRH-10 at 69 farmer’s field (Table 4) covering an area of 30.43 and 9.40 hectares respectively.
|S.N.||Crop||Technology Demons-Trated||Variety||No. of Village||No. of Farmers||Area in ha.||Demo. Yield q/ha.||Yield of Check q/ha||Increase in Yield (%)|
|1||Paddy||HYV||Pusa Basmati - 1||08||12||2.42||H : 38.5
L : 27.5
A : 30.4
|2||Paddy||HYV DSR||Rajendra Mahsoori||07||26||8.73||H : 53
L : 29
A : 41.5
|3||Paddy||HYV DSR||Pusa - 44||02||04||0.41||H : 46.5
L : 39.5
A : 42.5
|4||Paddy||HYV DSR||Rajshree||07||62||18.87||H : 61
L : 38.8
A : 46.7
|Crop||Plant Height(cm)||No. of Tiller/m2||Panicle Length(cm)||Straw Yield (q/ha)|
|Pusa Basmati -1||Demo : 122.6
Check : 119.4
|Demo : 299.8
Check : 263.6
|Check : 27.26
Demo : 22.8
|Check : 49.6
Demo : 45.6
|Rajendra Mahsoori||Demo : 118.8
Check : 118.4
|Demo : 428.9
Check : 274.3
|Check : 20.0
Demo : 19.7
|Check : 61.2
Demo : 56.4
|Pusa – 44||Demo : 118.4
Check : 112.9
|Demo : 504.2
Check : 340.0
|Check : 20.4
Demo : 17.5
|Check : 56.5
Demo : 50
|Rajshree||Demo : 150.0
Check : 160.0
|Demo : 403
Check : 199
|Check : 26.5
Demo : 23.4
|Check : 71.4
Demo : 48.6
|Crop||Average Cost of Cultivation (Rs. /ha.)||Average Gross Return (Rs. /ha.)||Average Net Return (Rs. /ha.)||Benefit Cost Ratio|
|HYV Pusa Basmati -1||Demo : 21,867.1
Check : 21,779.5
|Demo : 56,156.1
Check : 42,195.0
|Demo : 34,288.9
Check : 20,415.5
|Demo : 2.56
Check : 1.93
|Rajendra Mahsoori||Demo : 17663.4
Check : 23722.9
|Demo : 45433.8
Check : 42528.7
|Demo : 27770.3
Check : 18805.7
|Demo : 2.57
Check : 1.79
|Pusa-44||Demo : 18665.5
Check : 21692.5
|Demo : 46057.5
Check : 39510.0
|Demo : 27392.0
Check : 17817.5
|Demo : 2.46
Check : 1.82
|Rajshree||Demo : 18791.6
Check : 15625.5
|Demo : 51189.0
Check : 23371.0
|Demo : 32397.3
Check : 7746.1
|Demo : 2.72
Check : 1.49
|S.N.||Hybrid||Area in ha.||No. of Farmers||No. of Village||Date of DSR||Date of Harvesting||Average Plants Height (cm)||Average No. of Tillers/sq.m|
|1||PRH-10||9.4||69||14||15-06-2009 to 16-06-2009||3-10-09 to 10-10-09||114.56||438.56|
|Highest Grain Yield(q/ha)||Average Grain Yield(ha)||Lowest Grain Yield (q/ha)||Average Cost of Cultivation (Rs. /ha.)||Average Gross Return (Rs. /ha.)||Average Net Return (Rs. /ha.)||Benefit Cost Ratio|
Farmers showed a great response in adopting the techniques of DSR as well as short duration high yielding varieties of paddy along with other recommended technologies of balance use of fertilizers, use of herbicides and less irrigation in paddy field.
Shri Lal Ji Kushwaha s/o Late Sri Mahesh Kushwaha is a progressive farmer who lives in village Dumahi, Purabpatti, P. O. Dharampur Parwat, Block Dudahi of district Kushinagar, U.P. He is an intermediate pass young man who believes in hard work. His father had a small land holding and also possessed a small shop. He is a laborious and sincere person, who supported his father to run the shop and side-by-side studied and completed intermediate. The shop was not running well and about to be closed so he could not continue his study due to financial crunch. Being elder son of family, parent wanted him to earn money to meet out the family expenditures. He worked as a teacher in a private nursery school for two years but payment was not sufficient to overcome the economic stresses. Then he decided to go outside for a job, and went to Delhi, spent four months to search job but failed to get an appropriate job. He came back to his village and decided to close the shop and help his father to grow vegetables on his small farm land (1 acre). Being a member of Kushwaha family (vegetable growers) he started growing brinjal in his parental land with involvement of all family members (father, mother and younger brother) for livelihood.
In 2005, Shri Lal Ji Kushwaha came in contact to recently established Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Seed Production Centre, Sargatia, Kushinagar and shown interest to adopt new technologies in vegetable production. In the mean time he got an opportunity of an exposure visit to Indian Institute of Vegetable Research Varanasi through National Horticulture Development Foundation (NHRDF) Deoria. After visiting the IIVR Varanasi, he was impressed to see the new varieties and production technologies of vegetables and wanted to adopt the same at his field. At the same time, Krishi Vigyan Kendra was established in IIVR-SPC campus at sargatia, Kushinagar. He already had a contact with Shri Rajneesh Srivastava, S.M.S. (Horticulture) who at that time looking after the IIVR-SPC, Kushinagar. With the establishment of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shri Rajneesh Srivastava put a front-line demonstration on cowpea in Zaid 2007 in his field. Lal Ji was impressed to see the overall growth, yield and quality of cowpea pods of the variety Kashi Kanchan. In the next season, considering the overall performance he decided to cultivate cowpea variety Kashi Kanchan in 1.5 acre area. He also took 1.0 acre land on lease and expanded the cultivation of cowpea crop. With these efforts, he got net return of Rs. 61000=00 from the sale of green pod. Another timely suggestion from the S.M.S. was given to produce seeds from the last picking. Following this advice, he produced 250 kg of seeds and sold it at the rate of Rs. 70=00 per kg and earned Rs. 17500=00. To extract more profit, he leased some more land and started cultivation of tissue culture raised banana in 0.3 ha farm land and got a net return of Rs. 1.0 lac.
Lal Ji Kushwaha later made a ‘Machaan’ (a local form of bower made from bamboo and plastic rope) and started growing hybrid (Chaman) bitter gourd in 0.32 ha area and got a return of Rs. 30000=00. On the advice of Shri Rajneesh Srivastava, S.M.S., he started cultivating coriander and ginger beneath the machaan of bitter gourd. As per the advice for early fruiting, he started preparing nursery of bitter gourd in polythene bags under low cost plastic tunnels so that he could make an early planting. Such an advice realised him an early bitter gourd crop and fetched a good return. To double the benefit and utilize the land beneath the machaan he planted ginger in the month of June and later in July he sown coriander. He was amazed with the produce and got returns of Rs. 60000=00 from bitter gourd, 40000=00 from ginger, and 22000=00 from coriander from same piece of land. In this way with the intervention of new technologies from KVK, Sargatia, Kushinagar, he earned a total income of Rs. 1,22,000=00 in one year. With the initial success with horticultural crops, next year (2009-10) he purchased 1.0 acre land and started cultivating ginger with bitter gourd and banana. This was a turning point of his life and he could make handsome money of Rs. 3.0 lacs only from sale of ginger against Rs. 62000=00 total cost of cultivation in 1.0 ha area. In the year 2009, his mother died and his father suffered from numerous health problems. In this critical situation, he single headedly took all the responsibility of the family.
Lal JI always wanted to adopt new technologies and tools in agriculture and he showed interest to grow papaya which was a new crop in his area. He contact to Subject Matter Specialist, Horticulture and get technologies for growing papaya. He procured seed of papaya hybrid "Sinta" in the month of February 2012. He sown seeds in prepare bed and after germination when plant reached two to four leaf stage transferred them in 22 x 10 x 8 cm sized polybag and take care for about two months. In the first week of April he planted papaya in 0.11 ha area, 275 plants with spacing of 2 x 2 m. The total cost of cultivation Rs. 21600=00 and get return of Rs. 100320=00 with the yield of 70.0 q (626 q/ha) with B:C ratio of 4.64:1 in 14 months.
On the basis of earning from agriculture he purchased 1.5 acre land and took 1.0 acre land on lease in last seven years. At present he is cultivating following crops in his field: banana (0.4 ha), papaya (0.11 ha), ginger (0.08 ha), bitter gourd (0.32 ha), coriander (0.08 ha), pointed gourd (0.11 ha) and cowpea (0.15 ha) and also possessed a cow.
Proving that agriculture is still a good source of livelihood, Shri Lal Ji Kushwaha along with his wife Smt. Krishnawati Devi devote much of his time and labour on the field. He says new technologies which he got from KVK, Sargatia, Kushinagar transformed his life. On that basis his two sons are studying in Allahabad, the elder one has completed Intermediate and preparing for engineering and the younger one is studying in high school. Lal Ji Kushwaha happily gives the credit for all his success to the new horticultural production techniques, which he learnt from KVK, Sargatia, Kushinagar and adopted on his farm land. He also got several prize from different organisation and role model farmer of his and nearby villages.
Under the circumstances a massive demonstration of cowpea variety Kashi Kanchan were undertaken at 76 farmers field in different villages of district Kushinagar during 2007-10 with the objectives to increase the farmers income in short duration as well as improve the soil health.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a commercial vegetable, grown around the year except October-February and all the type of soils. But, it requires a fertile soil for better performance. Being a legume, cowpea is a promising crop for controlled ecological support system, since foliage, green pod and seeds are edible with low fat, high complex carbohydrate, moderate proteins and adequate minerals. It also improves the soil health by enrich the organic matter and nitrogen recycling. Therefore, it is known as potential crop for human as well as soil health. It is also well suited in rice-wheat cropping system.
It was observed by the KVK farmers of district Kushinagar grown local varieties of cowpea which were spreading type, long duration maturity with low yield, poor quality and highly sensitive to golden yellow mosaic virus. Therefore, KVK planed to demonstrate the improve variety Kashi Kanchan which was developed by Indian Institute of Vegetable research, Varanasi. It is photo-insensitive, dwarf (40-45 cm height) and short duration variety which takes 40-45 DAS to flowering and ready to harvest in 50-55 DAS. Pods are 20-30 cm long, green in colour, soft, flashy, and free from parchment layer. This variety is also resistance to golden yellow mosaic virus.
During demonstration, it was recorded that the yield of variety Kashi Kanchan found 38.44 % higher than local variety with average yield 122.8 q/ha and taken 110-120 days to harvesting.
Farmers were very impressive with the performance of variety Kashi Kanchan due to higher yield, quality and resistance to mosaic virus attack, resulting better income in very short duration (50-60 DAS). They have also observed that the yield of succeeding crops is also increasing because of enriching the soil health. After seeing the result of demonstration, this technology has been adopted by the more than 85% farmers of selected villages and spreading in another district as well as states.
After the demonstration, farmers prefer to grow variety Kashi Kanchan and generating a better income in a very short duration. The demand of seed of this variety is increasing so, farmers requirement does not fulfill by the government agencies. Seeing the demand of seeds farmers of villages Malludih and Baluhi started seed production of this variety through various agencies like NHRDF. Now farmers are getting more income by green pod as well as seed of cowpea variety Kashi Kanchan. Yet, village Malludih is popularizing for seed production of variety Kashi Kanchan.
Anita Kushwaha is a hard working confident progressive farm woman with innovative thinking. She has proved that women are equally important work force for agriculture and they can actively participate in all agricultural operations. She does all the agricultural operations like seed treatment, seed sowing, spraying of fertilizers and pesticides, and other inter-cultural operations. Anita was born in district Kushinagar at village Malludeeh of block Kasia in the year 1980. After passing high school examination, she got married to Shri Arjun Kushwaha. Arjun had 0.5 ha cultivable land but due to danger of attack of Blue Bull (Neelgai), he only used to grow wheat and rice in a traditional manner as a result, the agriculture was not profitable enterprise for him. Once upon a time a training programme was imparted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sargatia, Kushinagar in the village Malludeeh on scientific cultivation of vegetables. Anita attended this training and in this way she came into contact with Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sargatia Kushinagar. In this training, she came to know that if whole village will do vegetable cultivation the danger of attack of Neelgai could be minimized. She got motivation for vegetable production on large- scale. She decided to grow vegetables like brinjal, cowpea, coriander with maize from Zaid 2011 in 0.5 ha farm land. She earned net profit of Rs. 112000=00 in the year 2011 while the annual net profit of the year 2010 (before the intervention of KVK, Sargatia, Kushinagar) was only Rs. 37000=00. She got 0.25 ha land on lease for vegetable production in the year 2012. Anita cultivated short duration crops like radish, onion and garlic leaves, cauliflower, etc. She grew vegetables on ridges and adopted intercropping system of farming as she produced coriander with maize. All these efforts made by Anita resulted to a better annual profit in the year 2012-13. Anita is also engaged in allied field as she posses 07 goats and 02 buffaloes. She has also developed a nutritional garden with the help of KVK near the home where she is growing organic vegetables for house hold consumptions.
Recently, she got training on button mushroom production and she has produced Dhingri mushroom at her home and earned Rs. 133=00 per bag. In this way, Anita has changed the social and economical status of her family with the active participation in farming. She is not only a progressive farm woman but also a role model for other women in the village. She has good knowledge about the varieties, pesticides, seed treatment and interested in gathering information on food processing. She is running a self-help group and at present Rs. 35000=00 is deposited in the account of this group. She helps in organizing training programmes for women of her village to upgrade their knowledge and skills. Anita is happy and satisfied with her life and she gives the credit to KVK for her progress. In conclusion we can say that Anita is an example of women empowerment who is working for other women and society at large to improve the livelihood
|Year||Season||Crop||Area (ha)||Total Income (Rs.)||Net Profit (Rs.)|
Coriander + Vegetables
A farmer named Suresh Singh S/O Shri Sabhapati Singh R/o village – Raja pakad, P.O. Barwa Raja pakad District –Kushinagar aged 42 years, relates to this story. His basic source of income was traditional agriculture upto 2008. He procured a piece of land of two Beegha for farming to fulfill his needs. Being a very small holding farmer it is very difficult to achieve the needs of his family. That’s why he did not able to complete his graduation to accomplish his child hood dream to be a graduate. Like other farmers as usual, he also carried his life measurably with two times meal and lost the hope to increase his family’s economic status. He always thinks about his family’s higher status to do some betterment. He blessed four children and always worried about their education and well being. From here and there, he managed their schooling education. Some day he came to know that there is Krishi Vigyan Kendra, a central Govt. organization with a distance of approximately 7-8 km from his village. Also he heard that some qualified specialists appointed to upkeep the economic conditions of poor farmers like me. He made up his mind to ask about different schemes and programs which suits to him. Finally he decided to meet the specialists of KVK.
In the first month of 2009 he met specialists of various discipline and finally came to me and discussed his need based commodities requirements that how can I increased my socio-economical condition. As case study I suggest him to start poultry farming which suit this particular area. I discussed with him each and every merits and demerits of broiler farming techniques. After through discussion he selected BROILER farming and decided to start in this direction. First he gained training repeatedly for broiler farming at KVK. He inspired a lot and starts broiler farming at a very small scale. In a first spell he started with 250 numbers of chicks and gain some profit. This boots his confidence then he decided to take a loan to construct poultry shed and in the next season, he procured double number of chicks (500), but due to some natural calamities he did not get expected profit. In the mean time, he decided to increase his poultry farm unit and in next season he increased the number of chicks. At this time he came to me and asked some betterment to recover his loss which he faced last season. I recommended him to divide his poultry shed into two separate units and teach him epidemic and diseases of broilers. He showed a lot of courage and increased the number of broilers up to 1200 number into two equal units. By entering into third year, gradually he was expert in broiler farming and starts six crops (one crop takes 45-50 days and weight of 2.0 to 2.25 kg/unit) in a financial year. His graph of profit vertically increased. In terms of monetary benefit he obtained an average Rs. 45000.00 per crop. Likewise, his net profit in a financial year reached up to Rs. 2,73,778.00 in year of 2012-2013.
Now his socio-economic condition is comparatively better and his children are getting better higher education i.e., graduation in arts and B. Tech from Kanpur, UP. Side by side his agriculture income was also increased due to low input (in terms of Chemical fertilizers) as he replaced these chemical fertilizers with poultry manure. Now he can discussed and teach his other community fellows, not only about poultry farming but also about organic farming. Like this with help of expertise given by KVK, Sargatia, Kushinagar and many other farmers of this area are gaining profits and increased his socio-economic condition.
|Year||No. of Crop||No. of Chicks||Total Cost (INR)||Avg. Weight (Kg) / Unit||Avg. Rate / Kg (INR)||Income (INR)||Profit / Loss||% Profit / Loss|
|2009 - 10||1||250 (242)||20812||2||60||29040||8228||39.5|
|Total||Profit During The Year (INR) : 19868|
|Total||Profit During The Year (INR) : 19116|
|2011 - 12||1||700 (679)||81480||2||70||95060||13580||16.7|
|Total||Profit During The Year (INR) : 107250|
|Total||Profit During The Year (INR) : 273778|
Narendra Sharma is the fourth son of late Mangal Sharma, resident of village Bhagwanpur, Kushinagar. His father was a farmer by profession with very small land holding and a large family to support. Narendra started working as a carpenter for his livelihood in other city. After the sad demise of his father, he had to drop his studies. In 2008 he lost his fingers in an accident while working due to which he had to say goodbye to his career in furniture making and had to bear about four lack rupees in the treatment bringing about an acute financial crisis rendering him more poor and his economic status worsened in the next couple of years.
In 2010 he fathered a child harboring heart problem by birth. For his treatment Narendra started sale of dairy products from home for additional income. He felt the need of more financial support for his family as is said “necessity is the mother of invention” he started poultry farming. In this regard he visited Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Seorahi, Kushinagar in January 2013 where he got information on mushroom cultivation, which inspired him to starting mushroom cultivation as there were market option available locally and no reliable source of regular availability in the area. He got detailed technical and scientifically updated knowledge about mushroom production through continuous brain storming with KVK personnel overtime. In September 2013 he started the button mushroom production at home. In January 2013 he started oyster mushroom production. From button mushroom production he earned net return of INR 13750.00 with total return of INR 20250 in 135 days from limited area of 160 sq. ft. From oyster mushroom production total profit incurred was 3990 with total return of INR 6000.00 in 45-60 days. Moreover he utilized the nutrient rich compost from button mushroom for crops and nutritious feed for animals from wastes of oyster mushroom.
In this way Narendra has become an icon in the local region for initiating mushroom production in the locality and ensuring its availability besides promoting the cause to others. He is now really enjoying his success and newfound socio-economic status. He was so excited that he approached the local bank for a loan to expand his mushroom production. After thoroughly screening his application and considering his dedication to the cause the bank has sanctioned his loan and has prompted him to take up mushroom production on 100 q wheat straw. He is highly obliged to all KVK staff for their coordination and timely help as and when expected in the hour of need.
|Type of Mushroom||Total Cost||Total Return||Net Return||B: C Ratio||Yield in kg.|